Censorship is the suppressing of unacceptable parts in books, movies, tv, etc. The control of information and the retention of power.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication or other information which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups or institutions. In "Banned in the Media" Herbert N. FoerstelIn writes "Whereas the history of the book censorship has consisted primarily of the suppression of naughty stories, press censorship has consisted primarily of the suppression of embarrassing truth." long as people try to express their ideas and thoughts censorship will be around. The First Amendment protects against censorship but that does not give protection from corporate censorship from taking place. Corporate censorship is the use of corporate influence to limit freedom of expression achieved through refusal to sell a product, advertise or allow airtime.
Ted Gottfried's book "Censorship" he says censorship is "When a publisher decides not to publish a book for reasons of morality, politics, or pressure from tout side sources, some would consider that censorship."
In Frank Caso's book, also, "Censorship" he writes "Censorship suppresses human expression. Throughout recorder history, rulers and religious leaders have abused their powers to forbid speech, writing, and images they consider a threat to their authority or contrary to divine will. Censorship also means manipulating the information people are allowed to receive, including creating official messages that are thrust upon the population. A third form of censorship is secrecy: all governments label some information secret and try to prevent its publication."
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published or viewed on the internet. This can be carried out by the government or private organizations by the orders of the government, regulators or on their own doing. Individual and organizations engage in self-censorship for moral, religious, business reasons, social norms, intimidation and out of fear of legal action.
The whole idea of censorship has brought up many controveries. It has been challenged against the First Amendment of the U.S Constitution. The First Amendment allows citizens to exercise their freedom of speech and press. The protest against many public information has raised public awareness on the potential harm that intellectual freedom may have on individuals in the community.
One of the first and most famous cases of censorship occurred in the ancient world (399 B.C.E.). This case involved the Athenian philosopher Socrates, in which, he held discussions with the youths of Athens. During these discussions he questioned their beliefs on politics and religion. These discussions made the other citizens angry and Socrates was charged with corrupting the city's youths and undermining Athens's religion. He lost the case and was sentenced to die by drinking hemlock (poison). This was not the last time that w would see this type of censorship, it would reappear in different forms many times and in many cultures all the way until modern times.
In the 19th century Russia created tRussia's Foreign Censorship Board. The main offices were in Saint Petersburg with other offices stationed throughout the Russian Empire. Their job was to control all foreign printed matter that entered the country. The censored books, magazines, newspapers, maps and music. This was all in an effort to prevent liberalizing influences from entering Russia.
Internet censorship with Telecommunications Act of 1996 Edit
In 1996 the United States began to deal with the censorship of the Internet with the Telecommunications Act. In this Act There is also a "Communications Decency Act" or CDA. This limits the amount of obscene, indecent and offensive material on the internet. Part of this Act makes it illegal to distribute pornography or other indecent material to minors through digital media and the internet. This Act limited free speech on the internet which before was regarded as very free. When this Act was put in place there was late debates as to if this was needed and the effects that it would have on the internet community. This Act showed an effort by the government to censor the thoughts and ideas of people. They disguised this by saying that it was in order to protect children.
National Banned Books WeekEdit
Just like how how there is censorship on the Internet, there is also censorship on books. The National Banned Books Week campaign began in 1982 where there was a substantial number of books being challenged in schools, bookstores, and in libraries. Every year, schools all around the world celebrate National Banned Books Weeks where students are able to read books that have been censored by the public due to its content. The National Banned Books week allows students to exercise their intellectual freedom and create discussions pertaining to the content.
Since 1982, more than 11,000 books have been challenged by the public and about 300 books have been challenged in 2013.
Further Readings Edit
Censorship, Or Freedom of Expression?: or Freedom of Expression? Edit
Examines the First Amendment and how it work with censorship. This book raises issues of censorship in publishing, schools, entertainment, the internet and the involvement of the government.
Media Censorship Edit
Provides readers with a look at the issues surrounding censorship along with arguments with censorship at the focus. In this you will gain an understanding of the different types of censorship, laws and court cases surrounding censorship and how it works with the First Amendment.
Provides a look at many different kinds of censorship that has occurred throughout history, femom the first Emperor in China who had critics buried alive to new laws in the world regarding the internet.
Banned in the Media Edit
Provides in depth coverage into each media format. Each format is examined from it creation up to modern times and shows the issues that have been raised. It contains discussions of landmark cases and incidents.
Censored 2015: Inspiring We the People; The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2013- 2014 Edit
Provides a top025 list of underreported news stories that should be top stories on the nightly news but are missing because of media bias and self censorship
Gottfried, Ted. Censorship. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print.
Caso, Frank. Censorship. New York: Facts On File, 2008. Print.
Foerstel, Herbert N. Banned in the Media: A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Print.
Day, Nancy. Censorship, or Freedom of Expression? Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 2001. Print.
Magoon, Kekla. Media Censorship. Edina, MN: ABDO Pub., 2010. Print.
Steele, Philip. Censorship. New York: New Discovery, 1992. Print.
Roth, Andrew Lee, Mickey Huff, and Khalil Bendib. Censored 2015: Inspiring We the People: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2013-2014. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.