1. This entry on Communication is a stub. This stub is owned by Xiaowei Zhuang
  2. Communication is what one does through Writing.


  1. Overview
  2. Definition
  3. Examples
  4. Resource and further reading 
  5. Key words
  6. Citation

Overview: Communication is an ongoing and dynamic process of sending and receiving messages of sharing purpose (Ivy, 2012). In the context of media, I think instead of viewing medium as tool, people can more view it as a living person actively interacting with audience and make impact to finish the communication process.

Definition: According to U.S Army (1983), communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver. While from the research of Janathan Payne, the meaning of our communication is not in what we say, but in how the other person responds. How they respond reveals what we actually communicated in spite of what we thought we said.

Communication is a study can date back to greek period. But the communication and mass media theories has been built thoroughly after the 20 century. The interactive process can not only show between people and people. After the advanced development of modern technology, the researches focus on communication go hand by hand with media. Communication studies can focus on how the one - way priming communication from mass media can impact people's behaviors and thoughts in the real world. Moreover, more communication scholars focus on the interactive process between audience and media (Dixon, 2006).


a. communication can happen between people to people. The following conversation happen in the real life can be an example show the encoding, decoding and interactive process of communication.

Nicole," Where are you going?"

Elena:" I am going to study for finals."

Nicole:" OMG, you are graduating within one week, why do you still take finals so seriously?"

Elena:" As a perfectionist, even the last semester I still want to get a straight A."

b. Communication and Media. In one of my favorite TV show Orange is the New Black, after hearing back from audience opinions that they want inmate Chapman and her boyfriend broke up, the directors really change the pilot to suit audience's taste.

Another example, news editors know that general public prefer news that are relevant, novelty and exciting. Therefore, they like pick single event, such as crimes and exaggerating it to get more subscription. As a result, the communication between media and audience sometimes will distort the reality.

Resource and Further Reading:

  1. Gender Speak, Fifth Edition, by Diana Ivy

Description: This book analyze interpersonal communication in different settings and mass media communication from the perspective of gender. Gender communication is communication between women and men.

2. The New Stress on Communication Skills, The New York Times, by Penny Singer [1](link)

Description: This article emphasizes the importance of communication skills in office setting and people's expectation of communication skills in employees.

3. A critical Analysis of Communication Theory, Journal of Communication, by Potter James.

Description: This scholarly- reviewed paper discuss the mass media cultivation theory. Additionally, it employs tools to examine the effect on audience through multiple mediums.

4. Schemas as Average Conceptions: Skin Tone, television News Exposure, and Culpability Judgements, Journalism and Mass Communication Quartly, by Travis Dixon.

Description: This paper examines how media creates and enhance stereotypes from the perspective of schema theory.

5. Resource: Illinois Communication Library Homepage:

Description: There are a lot of resources related to the topics we talk about in class, such as multimodal media, visual and sound projects critique. It also contains a lot of research paper that link communication theory to mass media studies, which definitely worth discovery.

Key Word:

Cultivation Theory;

Gender Communication;

Priming Effect;

Schema Theory;

Gratification Theory


U.S. Army. (October 1983). Military Leadership. FM 22-100. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

VIDALES GONZÁLES, C. (2015). Historia, teoría e investigación de la comunicación. (Spanish). Comunicación Y Sociedad (0188-252X), (23), 11-43.

Dixon, T. L. (2006). Schemas as Average Conceptions: Skin Tone, Television News Exposure, and Culpability Judgments. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly83(1), 131-149.

Potter, W. w. (2014). A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory. Journal Of Communication64(6), 1015-1036.