A mashup is a form of remix that uses different sources to recreate a new work of art. Mashups are commonly seen in music, in which two or more songs are joined together to recreate a masterpiece. Although mashups are commonly seen in music, the idea has branched out and was introduced to the Internet. The whole concept of a mashup allows people to think creatively and remediate two or more original works and fuse them together to make it their own.
Definition and History Edit
The concept of a mashup started in the music industry, where two different songs were fused together to reinterpret the feel and the meaning of other people's work. Specifically, the idea of mashup was commonly seen in the '70s, where there was a growing popularity in hip hop and disco music. Creating a mashup can be as simple as copying and pasting bits and pieces of songs to create a cohesive piece of work. This type of mashup is known as sampling.
A decade later, the concept of a mashup managed to crawl its way into the internet, bringing a rise to website mashups. In a website mashup, two or more applications are combined to achieve an experience or a goal. Website mashups gained its population from the development of Web 2.0. Web 2.0 was formed after the crash of Web 1.0, and was created in a way where it was more interactive to the Internet users. Creators were able to develop softwares through the use of old programs and resources. As a result, programs were able to enhance a function in ways where one source is unable to perform themselves.
Mashups in Music Edit
Contemporary musical mashups were popularized in 2001 by DJ Freelance Hellraiser when he created "A Stroke of Genie-us" from a combination of "Genie in a Bottle" with "Hard to Explain". The technology allowing for the mixing of vocals and instrumentals from different songs had become much easier to use and was relatively inexpensive at this time. The internet was also critical in spreading this type of music and gaining publicity, quickly creating a community of amateur mashup producers.
A characteristic of basic musical mashups is limiting combinations to two or three songs. They are also composed entirely from recordings, there is no original content. The recordings themselves may be altered to fit in a different key and vocals can be placed out of context to create confrontation within the song, as if two artists are responding to each other. A sub-genre of mashups is cover mashups, which use real performances from a band or singer rather than the original recorded material. Paint palette mashup is unique in that the sampled songs are not easily recognized. Extreme editing in this case changes emphasis of musical instruments, notes are out of order, and lyrics may be shortened. An example of a paint palette mashup is Jay-Z's Grey Album based off of The Beatles White Album.
The work of mashups has been often called under fire and debated about legality. Some even criticize that mashups shouldn't be considered art if it is using the work of another person. There are legal battles over pieces of work between the original artist and the one who did the mashup. "RIP: A Remix Manifesto" is a film that explores the issues behind mashups, and the film argues in favor of allowing for artists to rework each other's work freely. The film cites "fair use" as a legal defense for artists to use free speech when creating mashups of any kind.
One examples of a mashup can be seen in music. In song mashups, two or more songs are blended together to transform original works into something new. Different elements of multiple songs are cohesively combined in a way where listeners are able to recall the origin of the song and the time period rather than focus on a single artist. One song that was able to provide different elements from different songs to produce a new masterpiece is The Evolution of Music by Pentatonix. In their song, they went through ten centuries of music. By having different songs from different periods of time, listeners are able to explore and embrace the way that music has evolved over a long period of time.
The development of Web 2.0 has allowed people to invest in time to make interactive programs and resources for users. One popular mashup that's accessible for Internet users would be a map mashup on Google Maps. Google Map has collaborated with other resources to make navigation more convenient for users. This can be seen in Weegoo. Weegoo is a website that allows people to classify and look up events based on location. The events are all pinpointed on Google Maps. If an event has been found, the page can be shared in social medias such as Facebook, Twitter, etc.
Resources and Further Reading Edit
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mash_up.html - This gives a general definition of a mash-up and where it originated.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.proxy2.library.illinois.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4620093 - This gives a deeper explanation on web (Internet) mashup
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28music%29 - This gives an explanation on music mashup.
http://dl.acm.org.proxy2.library.illinois.edu/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1558343&type=pdf&CFID=481938559&CFTOKEN=58210650 - This talks about the strengths and weaknesses of merging two outside sources to create a new program
http://works.bepress.com/sydney_sanchez/1/ - This talks about how copyright laws are preventing people from innovating new ideas and work through mashups.